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Saturday, June 16, 2012

RADIATION AND RADIOISOTOPES APPLICATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT


UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM
DEPATMENT OF PHYSICS
PH 203: RADIATION BIOLOGY AND AGRICULTURE
PAPER WRITING ASSIGNMENT
RADIATION AND RADIOISOTOPES APPLICATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT
NAME
FOVO, Frank P.
DEGREE PROGRAM
BSc. In Molecular Biology And Biotechnology
APPLICATION RADIATION AND RADIOISOTOPES IN THE INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT
Nuclear science and technology have contributed immensely to almost every social and economic sector and in almost every corner of the globe. Radioisotope is one of the tools for studying nuclear science. The radioisotopes have numerous applications in medicine, agriculture, industry and pure research.
Radiation is the process in which energetic particle or waves travel through a medium or space. Radiation can either be ionization or non-ionization radiation. Examples of particles that can cause radiation (s) are alpha particles, beta particles and neutrons and waves are like X-rays and gamma rays (U. S Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2000).
Radioisotopes are unstable chemicals/elements whose radioactivity is measured by the number of atoms disintegrating per unit time. The disintegrating atom can emit different particles depending on the nature of the atom. Example is alpha particles, gamma particles or X-rays which can occur simultaneously or combined (Delaware Health and Social Services, 2009).
Radioisotope is described by its name followed by a number; example is Carbon-14 (C-14) and Flurine-18 (F-18). The number represents the atomic number of the element, this is; the total number of protons and neutrons that make up the atoms’ nucleus (U. S Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2000).
Few radioisotopes occur naturally but most of them are man-made. Examples of naturally occurring radioisotopes are Carbon-14, Chlorine-36, Lead-210 And Tritium (H-3) and examples of man-made radioisotopes are Americium-241, Caesium-137, Chromium-57, Cobalt-60, Lanthanum-140, Scandium-46, Silver-110m, Gold-198, Hydrogen-3, Iridium-192, Krypton-85, Manganese-54, Nickel-63, Selenium-75, Strontium-90, Thallium-204, Ytterbium-204 and Zinc-65 (U. S Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2000).
Radioisotopes are very useful in different fields due to their unique properties that help in solving problems; this is due to their varying penetrative ability. They can penetrate materials of varying thickness.
Radioisotopes come from two main sources; from the nature, example of radon that is present in the air and radium in the soil. The other source is man-made as stated earlier. Man-made source of radiation can be from nuclear produced nuclear interactions in devices like linear accelerator or cyclotrons or from the nuclear reactor (small compared to power producing reactor).
Radiations and radioisotopes have great applications in industry and environment as follows:
Industrial application of radiations and radioisotopes:
Radioisotopes are widely used in many industrial processes today, the technology ensures the quality of manufactured products often rely in radiation generated by radioisotopes. The technology of radioisotopes in industry includes, radiography used to locate internal cracks, gamma scanning used for leakage detection, testing for uniformity of mixtures in industrial process and testing the sealing processes, use of radiotracers to study sediment transport at ports and harbors, flow measurements, hydrology and water resource management (Sukadev., et al, 2006).
I. Packaging and product sterility:
Gamma radiation (by using Cobalt-60 as the main isotope used as the source of gamma radiation source with half-life of 5.27 years) is very useful in inactivating microorganisms. As the bacterial count in general supposed to be as low as possible, a minimum radiation sterilization dose of 25 kGy is employed in the industrial processed foods (Sukadev., et al, 2006).
The dose provides extremely high safety factors, as microbial survival can be expected to be as one in a million. Advantage this is, product of any shape can be sterilized because powerful gamma rays penetrate right through the package and the product. Following this property and since sterilization is affected after final packaging, product sterility is retained indefinitely provided the package is undamaged when gamma rays are employed, in some case X-rays are used (Sukadev., et al, 2006).
II. Dating techniques:
Knowledge of the half-life of radioisotopes is used in radioactive dating to determine the age of materials. Uranium-238, for example, has a half-life of 4.5 x 109 years; this is used by archeologists to determine the age of old rocks and materials. This technique was also used to estimate the age of the earth. Carbon-14 with half-life of 5760 years is used to determine the age of dead plants and animals (Sukadev., et at, 2006).
III. Detection of leakages in pipes and corrosion:
Addition of beta- and gamma – radiation to the internal parts of a pipe can be used to detect corrosion and linkage of pipes. They are also be used to determine the thickness of sheet materials such as plastics, paper, metals and materials during production (Sukadev., et al, 2006).
Environmental application of radiation and radioisotopes:
i. Tracer technique:
The tracer technique involves the usage of a minute quantity of radioisotope element usually mixed with ordinary element of the same kind and the whole batch then becomes tagged and may be followed through complicated chemical reactions. With radioisotopes we can easily locate the presence of a single atom and molecule responsible for environmental pollution and their movement. Example iodine – 131 is applied to determine in tanks and digesters of domestic and industrial waste water treatment plant (Syed., et al, 2001).
ii. Treatment of liquid and solids residues and soil remediation:
The process of ionizing radiation on removing toxic and organic compounds in industrial effluent, drinking water, solid wastes and on destroying pathogenic microorganisms in waste water and sludge. This is widely used in the treatment of the industrial effluents that are recalcitrant when treated by conventional methods. Pesticides are the example of
chemicals that are harmful and expose different species in the environment and this assay can treat the chemicals to be harmless (Syed., et al, 2001).
iii. Biological assays for effluent control:
Several effluents are subjected to electron beam irradiation before released into the environment in order to reduce color, surfactants, and whole toxicity which can have negative impacts on the environment (Syed., et al, 2001).
Radioisotopes have numerical applications in industry, environment and other fields. In the addition to the efforts of scientists and engineers engaged in developing nuclear science and technology the sincere efforts of media in popularizing and propagating the beneficial uses of radioisotopes for national development are going to play a major role in realizing the full potential of atom.
REFERNCES:
Sukadev Sahoo and Sonali Sahoo, Production and Applications of Radioisotopes, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, India, April − June 2006.
Syed Manzoor Alam, Raziuddin Ansari and Mohammod Athar Khan, Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the field of agriculture, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam, Pakistan, 2001.
U. S Nuclear Regulatory Commission, The regulation and use of Radioisotopes in Today’s world, April, 2000.
Delaware Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Radiation from Radioisotopes, November, 2009.

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

YOUR ALTITUDE DETERMINES YOUR LATITUDE


behaviorpermited is behavior repeated,
have an altitude of expectancy.
failiure is a blessing that is hiden(a blessing in disguise).
failiure is not big defeat it should not bring u down. phil 2:3-4 so we must have altitude of christ .....

1 samuel 16:7. u should not look at outside appearance and be quik to judge,we should look at the heart.
thankfulness is the highest form of faith.phil 1:3..... kilamojayabarakakamailivyo,
ephes4:32 u cannot hv a good alltitude unless u forgive,the only way to succed in is  character is some one when no one is waching.
yoshua 1:8
provarb 13:13 u only hv one rule book from god.is amanual to a car, focus at one thing at time b perspstant like gatholomao, dont listen to every frend, frend can also determine yo success or failiure.
proverb 18:4
whenever u want some on  thing claim it becaousewith god victory is gurranteed.
do u know thewelhiest place on earth: its the grave yard
hebrews 9:7,when u die will u be pleased with what u have,have done everthing that udesired.god will pplay a ideo of yo life. meditate on gods word evry day psalm119:11
+ thank the lord for every litlte blessing
+ pasue goals of yo life
+if u want blessing u must be open 4 god to use u, it start with u,u cannot achieve and gain succuss until u accept to carry the blame, what u enjoy, wat u wish doing,what u dream doing,
therefore to achieve yo goal u need to have an altitude of expectancy
proverb16:9
BY BERNJAMIN FERNANDES.

Isolation of amylose and amylopectin from starch

UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM
DEPARTMENT OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
BN: 206 BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICALS
PRACTICTAL 2
Isolation of amylose and amylopectin from starch





NAME: FOVO Frank P.
REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2009-04-05754
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 23th DECEMBER, 2010

SIGNATURE (WRITER)               SIGNATURE (RECEPIENT)

ABSTRACT:
The goal of this exercise is to separate the two fractions of starch, amylose and amylopectin. It depends on the fact that unprocessed potato starch granules are formed of a matrix of amylopectin throughout which amylose is dispersed. Under mildly basic conditions, the amylose leaches out leaving the amylopectin network unaltered. The latter is recovered by sedimentation and the dissolved amylose is precipitated with butanol.
INTRODUCTION:
Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energy storePure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin.
Amylose:
Amylose is a linear polymer made up of D-glucose units. It is made up of α(1→4) bound glucose molecules, so in amylose, the 1-carbon on one glucose molecule is linked to the 4-carbon on the next glucose molecule (α(1→4) bonds).
Because of its tightly packed structure, amylose is more resistant to digestion than other starch molecules and is therefore an important form of resistant starch which has been found to be an effective prebiotic.
Amylopectin:
Is a soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) glycosidic bonds. Branching takes place with α(1→6) bonds occurring every 24 to 30 glucose units. In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds which causes it to be hydrolyzed more slowly but have higher density.
To separate the two fractions of starch, amylose and amylopectin, depends on the fact that unprocessed potato starch granules are formed of a matrix of amylopectin throughout which amylose is dispersed. Under mildly basic conditions, the amylose leaches out leaving the amylopectin network unaltered. The latter is recovered by sedimentation and the dissolved amylose is precipitated with butanol.
Iodine forms a blue complex with amylopectin and a red-violet with amylase.
METHODOLOGY:
Material used:
·       Potato
·       Conical flask
·       Centrifuge machine
·       Measuring cylinder
·       Beam balance
Chemical used:
·       0.16M NaOH
·       O.6M HCl
·       5% NaCl
·       1% NaCl
·       Iodine
·       1-butanol
·       Distilled water
METHODS/PROCEDURES:
·       Potatoes were grind and 40% (w/v) aqueous slurry of potato was prepared using distilled water as a solvent.
·       In a flask, 5ml of 40% (w/v) aqueous slurry of potato starch was added followed by 55mL of 0.16M NaOH and swirled gently until the suspension cleared. 
·       After 5 minutes, 15 Ml of NaCL in a 0.6M HCl and then mixed gently.
·       The mixture was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 minutes, and then the supernatant was seep into a separate flask.
·       The pellet formed was washed by suspending it in a 20mL 1%NaCl overnight and then the pellet (amylopectin) was collected by centrifuging the mixture at 10,000 rpm for 15 minutes.
·       Amylase was precipitated from the original supernatant by saturating it with 1-butanol and letting it stand overnight. Amylase was collected by centrifuging the mixture at 5,000 rpm for 15 minutes.
RESULTS AND DISCUSION:
Iodine test:
·       0.5g of amylase and amylopectin were dissolved in 2mL distilled water in two different test tubes.
·       5 drops of iodine solution were added in each test tube in each test tube.

ü The test tube, the test tube containing amylose changed its color to red-violet, showing the presence of amylose.
ü The test tube containing amylopectin changed its color to blue,showing the presence of amylopectin.
NOTE:
v NaOH was to make the gel swell before neutralization.
v 1-butanol was to precipitate amylose from the original supernatant.
Amylase has a bigger density compared to that of amylopectin, this makes it easy to separate the two by using centrifugation processes. The amylase forms the supernatant and the amylopectin forms a pellet following centrifugation.
Sources of error may have occurred during the measurement of volumes and masses.
CONCLUSION:
The procedures aren’t hard and fast. The procedure as given in the reference is much more compulsive about times, temperatures, washing, filtering, etc.
REFERENCE:
Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry, vol. IV, pp. 25-27, 1964
Robyt and White, Biochemical Techniques: Theory and Practice (Waveland Press, 1990).

COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF REDUCING SUGAR CONCETRATION

UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM
DEPARTMENT OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
BN: 206 BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICALS
PRACTICTAL 3
COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF REDUCING SUGAR CONCETRATION





NAME: FOVO Frank P.
REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2009-04-05754
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 06th JANUARY, 2011

SIGNATURE (WRITER)               SIGNATURE (RECEPIENT)

ABSTRACT:
The aim of this experiment is to determine the amount of sugar or carbohydrates in a soft drink provided by spectrophotometric (cololorimetric) method.
INTRODUCTION:
One useful and often used way of obtaining concentration of chemical in a solution, if it has color is by colorimetric method. If the analyte is not colored an appropriate reagent must be added that reacts with the analyte to produce a colored compound.
In this experiment, the method for determining concentration of sugar is based upon the color that forms when sugar reduce 3,5-dinitrosalicyclic acid(DNSA) to 3-amino-5-nitrosalicyclic acid.
 This method tests for the presence of free carbonyl group (C=O), the so-called reducing sugars. This involves the oxidation of the aldehyde functional group present in, for example, glucose and the ketone functional group in fructose. Simultaneously, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) is reduced to 3-amino,5-nitrosalicylic acid under alkaline conditions:

                Oxidation
aldehyde group ----------> carboxyl group



     Reduction
3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid ----------> 3-amino,5-nitrosalicylic acid

In this experiment sucrose is provided which is the non-reducing sugar, does not undergo reaction with 3,5-dinitrosalicyclic acid. Therefore the sucrose and complex carbohydrate must be broken down into simple sugars like glucose first. The hydrolysis can be done by boiling the sample with hydrochloric acid, and then the pH is adjusted to give a basic solution under which conditions are good for reducing sugar.
 This method is a straightforward modification of the original DNS method for glucose analysis.
The sugars in the soft drink are at too high concentration for this method. So dilutions must be carried out before carrying out analysis.
The measurement of transmittance (T) is made by determining the ratio of the intensity of incident ( I0) and transmitted (I) light passing through pure solvent and sample solutions as a function of wavelength. [Note: The percent transmittance (%T) is obtained by multiplication of T by 100.]
The logarithm of the reciprocal of the transmittance is called the absorbance (A),
A = log (1 / T)
According to Beer's law, the absorbance of a solution should be zero (100%T) if there is none of the absorbing species present. A blank solution that does not contain analyte being analyzed but have the same composition as the solution can be used to calibrate the machine into zero reading Absorbance (100%T). Then the machine can be used to find concentration of other solution.
  The Beer-Lambert Law is only obeyed (the standard curve is linear) for reasonably dilute solutions.
Nature of graphs obeying Beer’s-Lambert law:


METHODOLOGY:
Material used:
·       Cuvettes
·       Test tubes
·       Test tube rack
·       Test tube clamp
·       Two 400 ml beaker
·       Mohr pipettes
·       Bulb (5 and 10 ml)
·       25ml volumetric pipette
·       Five 100 ml volumetric flask
·       Pasteur pipette and bulb
·       Tissue paper
Chemical used:
·       6M HCl
·       2.5 M NaOH
·       0.05 M 3,5-Dinitrosacyclic acid
·       1000 mg/L standard sucrose solution
·       Soft drink to test (non-diet ,not dark colored)

METHODS/PROCEDURES:
Preparation of sucrose standard solutions
·       1000mg/L of standard solution was prepared by suitable dilution of the stock solution.
·       2:10 dilution was made as follows, 2.0 ml of the stock solution was pipette into a clean 10 ml test tube and distilled water was added to calibrate mark of 10 ml. The tube was covered and shakes well to mix. In a similar fashion, 4:10, 6:10, and 8:10 dilutions were made.
·       Five standards were prepared (the original stock solution and the four dilutions) as follows:
o   2.0 ml of each sucrose standard solution were pipette into test tubes.
o   2.0 ml of 6 M HCl was added into each test tube and placed in a boiling water bath for 10 minutes.
o    The test tubes were removed and carefully, 0.8 ml of 2.5 M NaOH , 2.0 ml of 0.0050 M 3,5-dinitrosalicyclic acid (DNSA) were pipette into each test tube.
o   Then the tubes were placed in a boiling water bath for 5 minutes.
o   The timer was set when the tubes were placed in the hot water so that each tube to stay in the water for the same amount of time.
o   The test tubes were removed from the boiling water bath at the proper time and quickly placed in ice-water bath for 10minutes.
o   Some of the blank (distilled water) solution was poured into a clean, dry corvette (filled half way) and then placed into the spectrophotometer.
o   The measurement of the standard solution was taken and the abundance was recorded.
Preparation of unknown sample solution (Beverage)        
·       Dilutions of beverages were prepared as follows:
o   0.1:100, 0.2:100, 0.4:100, 0.6:100, and 0.7:100 ml
o   Treated 2.0 ml aliquots of the diluted samples in the same manner that you did for the standards.  
o   The absorbance for the diluted samples was recorded.
RESULTS AND DISCUSION:
Results:
Determination of concentrations is done by using the formula;
C1D1=C2D2
Sucrose standard solutions:

DILUTION(ml)
CONCENTRATION(mg/L)
ABSORBANCE
Stock
1000
1.318
2:10
200
0.239
4:10
400
0.596
8:10
800
1.060
6:10
600
0.876


Unknown sample solution (Beverage):       

DILUTION(µL)
ABSORBANCE
Blank
0.000
0.01:10
0.218
0.02:10
1.036
0.04:10
1.416
0.06:10
1.622
0.07:10
0.603


Results from the graph:

DILUTION(mL)
BEVERAGE ABSORBANCE
CONCENTRATION (mg/L)
Blank
0.000
0.000
0.1:100
0.218
160
0.2:100
1.036
780
0.4:100
1.416
1060
0.6:100
1.622
1210
0.7:100
0.603
450


Average calculation:
(Concentration × dilution factor)1 + (concentration × dilution factor)2
2
160 × (100/0.1) + 780 × (100/0.2) +1060 × (100/0.4) + 1210 × (100/0.6) +450 × (100/0.7) mg/L
 5
Therefore average is 216,190.47mg/L
216,190.47mg/L × 350 ml
1000 ml
75,666.666mg/L
75,666.666mg/L × 1g
1000mg
 75.666g/L
Therefore the concentration of sucrose in the original beverage is 75.666g/L

Discussion:
The DNS method can be applied twice to measure the individual concentrations of a mixture of glucose and sucrose. First, a small part of the original sample is consumed in measuring the glucose concentration by following the original DNS procedure. Another part of the sample is hydrolyzed and subsequently subjected to the same DNS procedure. The difference in the absorbance between the acid treated sample and the untreated sample is due to the presence of sucrose. The sucrose concentration can then be calculated from a calibration curve based on that difference in the absorbance.
The concentrations of standard solution were used to plot a graph.
The above concentrations were obtained by extrapolation of the standard graph of absorbance against concentration, since the absorbances of the sample were known but the concentrations are the ones which were not known.
The concentration of sucrose in the original beverage calculated deviate from the true value. This is due to various errors taking place in experiment. The mainly errors were due to reading absorbance on the spectrometer or during measurement of volumes. Other sources of error include variation of temperature and humidity.

CONCLUSION:
The nature of the graph is a straight line, hence obeys the Beer’s law, and the concentration of the original beverage was obtained to be 75.666g/L

REFERENCE:
·       Lehinger, A.L, DL Nelson and M. Cox, 1993. Principles of Biochemistry 2nd Edition.
·       Practical hand-out
·       Biochemistry, 3rd Edition.
·       Miller, G.L., Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar, Anal. Chem., 31, 426, 1959.
·       www.wikipedia.com
·       Chaplin, M.F. and Kennedy, J.F. 1994. Carbohydrates: A practical approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
·       Hodge, J.E. and Hofreiter, B.T. 1962. Determination of reducing sugars and carbohydrates. In Methods in carbohydrate chemistry, Vol. 1 (R.L.
Whistler, and M.L. Wolfrom, eds.) pp. 380-394. Academic Press, London.